Gene Technology in a Day!
Click on the first link:
1. What is gene splicing?
2. Why put the human insulin gene into bacteria?
3. Bacteria have a circular DNA chromosome. In addition, they may have smaller, circular pieces of DNA that can transfer from one cell to another. What is this called?
4. When the chromosome is cut, we want jagged, or “sticky” ends. Why?
5. How can the cut ends of the plasmid match the cut ends of the chromosomal DNA? Hint: Should you cut the gene with the same enzyme as the plasmid, or use two different ones?
6. Why do you need to keep the gene intact when you cut it from the chromosome?
7. What type of enzyme is used to cut DNA?
8. Which enzyme worked to cut the complete gene out with sticky ends?
9. Which enzyme seals the gene into the plasmid?
10. This enzyme repairs the sugar-phosphate backbone of the recombinant DNA molecule. What type of bond is made?
Go back to Mrs. Cahn’s website and click on the second link:
11. When do scientists use gel electrophoresis?
12. The gel is the filter that :
13. Where are the DNA samples placed?
14. How do we make the DNA move?
15. Does DNA move toward the positive charge or the negative charge?
16. Which size strands move through the holes in the gel more quickly?
17. Where do you predict the largest pieces of DNA will be when the gel has finished running; near the top where they were loaded, in the middle, or near the bottom of the gel?
18. How does the DNA become visible to the naked eye?
19. What are the bands in the gel?
20. What are the steps to running a gel?
Complete numbers 22 – 24 only if Mrs. Cahn says there is time. Otherwise, skip ahead to DNA Profiling and question 25.
21. Why did you put a comb into the gel?
22. What is the charge on DNA?
23. After running the gel, what were your 3 size estimates? (These do not need to be exact.)
Please return to Mrs. Cahn’s website again.
Click on the DNA Profiling link.
Choose to Investigate the Will.
24. How many bands in Percy’s profile match Percy Jr.’s profile?
25. How many bands in Harriet’s profile match Percy Jr.’s?
26. Is this enough evidence to indicate that Percy was Percy Jr.’s father?
27. How many bands in Percy’s profile match Alistair’s profile?
28. How many bands in Harriet’s profile match Alistair’s?
Summary (no website)
29. If we isolated Mrs. Cahn’s DNA (by disrupting the cell membranes and nuclear membranes with detergent, and spooling the DNA into a layer of alcohol like we did in lab), how could we cut it into smaller
30. How could we separate the pieces by size?
31. Once separated, the DNA is transferred to a special filter paper (nitrocellulose), and florescent or radioactive probes are used to find specific DNA base sequences. This creates the bands on a DNA
profile. If one or two bands match with the profile of DNA from a crime scene, is this enough to prove that Mrs. Cahn was at the crime scene?
32. How many bands need to match to indicate the DNA is from the same person?
33. How many bands should match to indicate that two people are parent and child?
Go to Mrs. Cahn’s website and click on PCR to find out about Polymerase Chain Reaction. THIS SITE MAY NOT WORK. TRY IT, THEN MOVE ON IF IT IS NOT WORKING.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
34. How do scientists get the double stranded DNA to denature, and become single stranded?
35. What enzyme is used to make a complementary strand of the desired DNA?
36. From the graph, how many DNA copies will be formed by the end of the fourth cycle?
37. How many cycles are needed to get one million copies of the DNA?
Go back to Cahn’s page and click on the What is Cloning link.
or type in http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/cloning/whatiscloning/
What is Cloning?
Go to the yellow box on the right hand side.
38. Is cloning an organism the same as cloning a gene?
39. What does cloning an animal refer to?
40. What does cloning a gene mean?
41. When a human gene is cloned, what vector (vehicle) is it inserted into?
Go to #2 on the white part of the screen (left side).
42. What does SCNT stand for?
43. What is a somatic cell?
44. What is a germ cell?
45. What word did we use in class for a germ cell (starts with g)?
Open the large version of the red and blue sheep diagram that compares natural reproduction to Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer. Some answers are in your head, not on the website.
46. Is an egg cell diploid or haploid?
47. Does a sperm cell donate a haploid set of chromosomes or a diploid set?
48. What happens to the chromosome number after fertilization?
49. When the fertilized cell (zygote) divides by mitosis, what is formed?
50. In SCNT, is a haploid set of chromosomes transferred or a diploid set?
51. What is removed from the donor egg cell?
52. How are the egg cell and somatic cell fused?
53. Why is the offspring not genetically related to the egg donor?
If time, go back to Cahn’s page and click on Click and Clone link and clone a mouse.
54. What color was the clone?
Have more time? Try the Cloning Quiz
Let Mrs. Cahn see your score for extra credit. Or if you are doing this at home, copy what the score box says to receive extra credit (or print the page).
EVERYONE: Complete sheet GENE TECH II:
Investigate the Robbery by clicking on the DNA Profiling link.: Choose Investigate the Robbery this time.
Investigate the Robbery
For another mystery to solve, click on DNA Detective Start with Human Identification (near the bottom of page), then click on
Profiling and any of the other choices at the top of the page.
Go to http://www.dnai.org/d/index.html
DNA Detective: How to make a fingerprint
DNA Detective: Human Paternity Case
DNA Detective: Horse Paternity Case
Clone a Thylacine
Bird Flu activity
: Write a web summary and review.
DNA Fingerprinting and Southern Blots
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/stemcells/ Click on What is a Stem Cell, then continue to other sections.
Go to Challenges in Gene Therapy. http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/genetherapy/gtchallenges/